What is Computer Networking

By | November 1, 2022

The term computer networking is the network of connected computing devices that may communicate and share resources. To send data across wired or wireless technologies, these networked devices employ a set of guidelines known as communications protocols.

Managing, maintaining, and using the network infrastructure, software, and policies are all included in computer networking, in addition to designing, building, and using the network.

Also, computer networking allows for the connection of endpoints and devices to one another on LANs as well as to larger networks like the internet or private wide area networks (WAN).

For service providers, enterprises, and customers all across the world, this function is crucial for resource sharing, using or providing services, and communicating. Everything is made possible via networking, including phone conversations, text messages, and streaming videos.

If you want to know much about computer networking, how it works, the types of computer networking, and others, then this article is the best for you. Relax and read to the end.

What Do Computer Networks Do?

Modern computer networks, can:

  • Integrate on a large scale

Computer networks that are physically separated are connected by modern networking services. Through automation and monitoring, these services may enhance network operations and build a single, expansive, high-performance network. Depending on demand, network services can be scaled up or down.

  • Operate virtually

To establish numerous “overlay” networks, the underlying physical network infrastructure may be conceptually divided. Data may be delivered between nodes in an overlay computer network through a number of different physical channels since the nodes are virtually connected.

  • Provide data security

Access control and encryption are built-in security features in all networking technologies. To increase network security, third-party programs like firewalls, antimalware, and antivirus software can be incorporated.

  • Respond quickly to changing conditions

Software defines a large number of computer networks. Using a digital interface, traffic may be routed and managed centrally. Virtual traffic control is supported by these computer networks.

What are the Types of Computer Networking?

For computer networking, we have two main types: wired networking and wireless networking.

  1. Wired computer networking

In wired networking, data must be transferred between nodes through physical media. Due to its low cost and dependability, copper-based Ethernet cable is frequently utilized in households and companies for digital communications. As an alternative, optical fiber is utilized to move data farther and quicker, but it comes with a number of drawbacks, such as higher prices and more delicate parts.

2. Wireless computer networking

Without the need for cables, devices can connect to a network via wireless networking, which uses radio waves to transmit data over the air. The most popular and commonly used type of wireless networking is wireless LANs. Among the substitutes are Bluetooth, cellphones, satellites, microwaves, and more.

What are the Types of Enterprise Computer Networks?

There are three common types of enterprise private networks. However, below are the three common types:

  • Local area network (LAN)

A limited-in-size and-geography network of systems is known as a LAN. Computers and other equipment are often connected within a single office or structure. Small businesses utilize it or use it as a test network for prototypes that are being made on a smaller scale.

  • Wide area networks (WAN)

A wide area network (WAN) is a business network that spans many buildings, cities, and even nations. WANs are designed for secure, dependable long-distance connectivity whereas local area networks are utilized to transport data at quicker rates when nearby.

Software-defined WAN, often known as SD-WAN, is a virtual WAN architecture that is managed by software. Without compromising on security and service quality, an SD-WAN delivers more adaptable and reliable connection services that can be managed at the application level.

  • Service provider networks

Networks operated by service providers let users rent the provider’s network space and capability. In terms of network service providers, there are telecommunications firms, data carriers, wireless communication businesses, Internet service providers, and cable television providers that offer high-speed Internet access.

What are the Types of Computer Network Architecture?

There are two types of computer network architecture. Below are the two types.

Client-server architecture

Nodes in this kind of computer network might be either servers or clients. Client nodes receive resources from server nodes, such as data, processing power, or memory. The behavior of client nodes may also be controlled by server nodes.

Although clients can communicate with one another, they cannot exchange resources. For instance, some computers in business networks store data and set up preferences. The servers in the network are represented by these devices. By sending a request to the server computer, clients may access this data.

Peer-2-peer architecture

Connected computers share the same privileges and powers in a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. For coordination, there isn’t a single server. Both clients and servers can operate on any computer network device.

Depending on the peer, the entire computer network may access parts of its resources, such as memory and computing power. To host memory-intensive programs across several digital devices, such as 3-D graphic rendering, some businesses, for instance, employ P2P architecture.

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Networks?


Below are some of the advantages of a computer network:

  • Resource/Hardware sharing: Printers, scanners, and other peripheral devices can be shared by network users.
  • Data/File sharing: It makes it possible for people to share digitally stored information or gives remote access to information kept at another site.
  • Communication: Emails, video conferencing, chats, newsgroups, and webinars are just a few of the effective user communication channels made possible by networks.
  • Cost-effective: Cost savings can be attained through sharing an internet connection, storing data in a single database to which all users have access, centralizing network management to lower the need for IT assistance, and sharing peripherals and software.


Below are some of the disadvantages of computer networks:

  • Malware attack: In a networking setting, there is a potential that computer viruses may propagate quickly. The likelihood of malware spreading from one infected machine to others is significant, and the same is true if the server is affected.
  • Expensive setup: Given the needed gear, which includes networking cables, servers, HUBs, routers, switches, etc., setting up a computer network may be expensive.
  • Networks, as opposed to isolated computers, provide security hazards since they are vulnerable to unauthorized data access by hackers employing specialized hacking software or tools. Organizations must utilize security measures like firewalls to prevent the theft of sensitive or secret data.

A very fascinating and exact science is computer networking. Network topology is the term for the way that all computers and other devices are connected. A network’s nodes must all adhere to protocols, which are a set of standardized communication standards. Also, network architecture is the overarching plan that specifies how the computer network is set up, mostly focused on the functions.

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