How Do Computer Chips Work?

By | January 13, 2023

Technology these days has improved greatly. Almost every gadget we know can function because of the computer chips installed in them. But how do computer chips work? Have you ever thought of that?

Computer chips or microchips as they are called have been the major breakthrough for technology companies. It has been the centre of every gadget production.

Since most technologies rely on this, we must learn and know how it works. Knowing how it works will not only help you know what to fix if something goes wrong but you will also learn the very basics of computers.

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What are computer chips?

A computer chip is made up of a set of precisely integrated circuits onto a flat piece of silicon wafer. A chip is made up of multiple circuits and tiny transistors to regulate the flow of currents through the circuits.

The silicon wafer with its electric conduction properties allows the manufacturers of the chips to precisely direct the electric current to where they want it on the wafer.

The components of a chip are so small, you have to put them under the microscope most of the time to be able to see its structure. For this reason, they had the name microchip.

How do computer chips work?

A set of tiny transistors installed in the chips turn off and on electric currents to help regulate the circuits. Each circuit in the chip works in collaboration with all the other circuits on the silicon wafer to execute the task it is designed to do.

There are two major types of computer chips and each of them works differently. Each type of chip is designed to function in a different way.

Logic chips

Logic chips are the types of computer chips designed to help gadgets process data or perform calculations. Among these logic chips, we have CPU chips, NPU chips and GPU chips.

The CPU (Central Processing Unit) chips are the ones used to perform complex calculation tasks. These chips are designed to calculate and process data.

NPU (Neural Processing Unit) chips are chips designed specifically for machine learning programs. They function as a brain to the devices they are used in.

GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) chips are designed purposely to hand images. These chips help computers and other gadgets process images and display them on a screen.

Memory chips

Another type of computer chip that we see these days is the memory chip. These chips are designed to store data in their circuits temporarily or permanently until another command is issued to delete them.

The most common types of memory chips we have are the RAM and ROM

RAM (Random Access Memory) is a type of memory that stores data temporarily. Sometimes the data on this type of memory chip gets deleted when it is cut off from electric current.

ROM (Read Only Memory) as the name suggests is a read-only memory. You can only read what is on it but can not modify or write to it. It is a chip that is designed to contain an amount of information from the manufacturer. This information can not be modified by any electronic means.

If you asked; “How do computer chips work?” then this is your answer.


Since the beginning of the first computer, the computer has advanced massively. All these advancements we have today are basically because manufacturers found ways to make the chips better.

Computer chips today are nothing like what we knew in the past. In this era, the chips are smaller but are very powerful compared to the past.

The manufacturers did not only find new ways to improve the chips but also fund new ways to use them. This has improved technology greatly.

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